Biotechnology refers to the use of organisms or substances produced by them, in order to modify or improve the environment in which we live. It is often used in medicine, as well as science of food and agriculture. Although our understanding of biotechnology has advanced rapidly in recent years, it has been in existence since prehistoric times, making it one of the oldest Sciences. Early progress realized in the cultivation of products for food, as well as in animal husbandry, there is so much that you can be said of developments in biotechnology. The long history of biotechnology has been witness to events such as the understanding that the fermentation of the fruit juice could be transformed into wine, and that the yeast cells make the bread dough rise. Modern biotechnology has given rise to the development of drugs that save lives, and other advances for the well-being of men, in the way how we live our lives. One of the most famous events and most beneficial in the history of science and technology was the discovery of penicillin in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming. For our time, biotechnology has four major types of applications.

The first is on health, and this is often the first thing that comes to mind when most people think about biotechnology. Production and testing of new medicines is an important part of this apart, as well as the development in fields such as gene therapy, which involves the use of genetic material to treat and cure diseases at the cellular level. The studies carried out to determine the genetic makeup of a person affects their response to drugs that constitute the field of pharmacogenomics. Biotechnology has also found numerous applications in agriculture. One of the most promising benefits to agriculture has been the increase in the yield of crops through genetic engineering and transplantation.

The nutritional content of food also can be improved with these methods, so as the flavor and texture of foods. Plants can even be designed to be more resistant to pathogens and insect predators. This can reduce the need for pesticides and also prevents the deforestation, which is usually done to make safer foods consumed, as well as make your less expensive production. Even not related to health and agriculture industries can benefit from biotechnology. Some organisms can be designed and adapted to restore or recover the environments that have been contaminated. Waste products and contaminants can be removed and broken down by these modified organisms. Marine environments can benefit especially from this branch of biotechnology, because of the many dangers caused by the man who is seen under the environment.


He has been in the last decade that the dizzying evolution of technologies of information and communication (T I C) has transformed the way to act and communicate in practically all areas of human endeavor, he has broken paradigms on the way of doing things, by removing barriers such as distance, cost and socio-economic conditions, still affordable today practically for everyone. Accessibility to the T I C has facilitated its integration to business supporting a substantive and strategic functions of organizations, being the engine in some cases to reinvent the way to operate and do business. In our country there have been important advances in the use of the T I C, but there are still areas of opportunity to leverage in optimally resources that organizations invest in T I C. There are opportunities to make the T I C are focused to provide an added value to organizations in their productive, administrative processes, as well as facilitate the customer-supplier relationship and thereby shore up to sustained growth. Incorporation of the T I C as competitive advantage to know the impact of the I C T in the MSMEs are studies based on measures of efficiency and productivity, achieving affirm that SMEs involving the T I C have yields in the productive field 1, so those who have implemented the information technology in its processes have achieved growth and competitive advantages that support their survival. It is also accurate to say that the introduction of T I C speeds up the generation, access and distribution of information, being a valuable tool for decision-making; substantially to support the relationship with customers and suppliers.


The law of societies cooperatives of Spain (Law 27/1999) in its article 5. exhibits: any class except credit unions, may be if their statutes as foreseen, a section of credit, without independent legal personality of the cooperative that is part, limiting their active and passive operations to the own cooperative and its partners. Operational partners of the cooperative used services section of credit as authentic banks, with unique inability to link directly with the Spanish banking system. Typical products are: savings accounts, current accounts and fixed-term deposits. These liabilities will be used to finance partners and the cooperative itself. Loans, usually in the medium or long term, and the annual appropriations help partners achieve the funding necessary for the exploitation of their farms or activities. Other sections of the cooperative (supply shop, petrol station,) who billed to the partner can perform charges to the Cuentas-seccion of them.

Similarly (sales of crops, grants, payroll) fertilizers may also be recorded.The advantages are obvious for the cooperative: charges interest on deferral of payments, controls the risk of partner total and get a more helpless Treasury. A last advantage is the loyalty with our operate.The problem above mentioned about the impossibility of accessing the banking system can be resolved, and in fact what this, using double account system. The cooperative signed a collaboration agreement with a bank or cash. For each account in the section are opening one in the other entity. About the cuentas-banco is achieved access to the banking system (transfers, pay pensions, telephony etc.). Daily balances of the cuentas-banco are matched to a fixed amount and the differences are credited or charged in the general account of the section maintained at the Bank. The computer solution for the correct management of the credit section is not just an accounting with liquidations of interests goes much further. Practically operates as a bench or box but with characteristics that differentiate it from these.