Cost-effective interior design, techniques and tricks. Come the warm season, so many of us start to think about repairs. The process is lengthy, requiring careful attention and considerable expense. In this difficult We actually advised Vashchenko Inna V., a leading interior designer, architect of the company Stroyka-Team. How to make a beautiful interior with a small investment? This matter concerned a large part of the lucky owners their own homes. There are many design techniques and professional tricks that can make an original, stylish, not investing in the repair of large sums of money. It is time to share with you some of these original ideas.
So. Let's start with the living room. This is the place where the whole family, to invite friends for tea or coffee. Dining table for 6-8 people, couch and TV – an integral part of this space. At the same Time Lounge – this is the room that wants to make elegant, festive, since it is associated with the majority of family celebrations. If you choose a classic – that means time for a wall covering in the style of 'baroque'! Do not need hang all the walls – just choose one on which to hang the TV (or which will have to stand with the TV cabinet).
Make a rectangular frame of padogi. This will be our border wall coverings. The effect of highlighting and complexity of the space. Instead of expensive paintings hang on the wall of bright printed poster can be a triptych.
Old houses can be divided into several types: pre-revolutionary building, the post-revolutionary buildings, "Stalinka"; brick, panels, building is an architectural and historical value. Pre-revolutionary buildings – usually wooden houses with wooden floors and walls under the plaster. One of their features – the difference between (and sometimes – considerable) size of window blocks the size of the openings. At installation of windows during the construction of the gap was mounted frame of thick timber, which is already installed window assembly. Above the bar organized an impressive thickness of the plaster soffits. Over the years, old wood under the cracked plaster gradually izgnivaet, and sometimes turns into dust. When removing the windows have to break the plaster soffits and wooden box apart.
The result is a gap in where nothing to strengthen the window unit. In this case, the installation of window units provide pre-installation of the wooden box that is attached to the walls on the long fasteners. The walls of the houses built after Revolution, usually made of bricks and then plastered. She also formed slopes, and under a thick layer of mortar is often hidden all the same doborny board. As a result of the dismantling of old windows in a house aperture is obtained, where the perimeters of the outer part of the opening is much smaller than the inside, and the window sizes obtained from the measurements of the outer quarters, will clearly be an underestimate. Dismantle sill also presents the "surprises": sometimes under the wooden window sill board is ten inches of tow or other filler. Often this was due to the fact that during the restoration of old houses raised floor, and hence the window. The height of the window units had decreased, and window sills to raise all available at the time of ways. Read additional details here: Pete Cashmore. Naturally, when removing the tow must be removed and an opening to lay the masonry, which can be mounted in window frames.
On the basis of design documentation for the device should be corrosion resistant coatings to develop the project of works (CPD) in accordance with the requirements of SNIP 01/03/01, of which should include flow sheets device to separate anti-corrosion coatings. In the process maps on the device coatings should provide the following basic requirements: – the preparation of materials – "the preparation of the surface structure under the protective covering – "Application of primer or primer-impregnation -" a protective coating in one or more layers – "keeping the coating on the air until it hardened, drying or heat treatment; – "Okislovke surface. Materials used for corrosion resistant coatings device must comply with the requirements of existing TNLA. Their quality must be confirmed by quality certificate of the manufacturer and in accordance with applicable law, – the certificate of conformity of the National System of conformity or technical evidence. Transportation, warehousing and storage of materials, as well as structures and equipment coated with a protective coating on the construction site should be in accordance with the requirements of TNLA for this product (product). Quality Control Devices anticorrosive coverings should be in accordance with the requirements of existing TNLA. The ambient air temperature, shielding materials and surfaces to be protected must not be below 10 C – for paint coatings, prepared on the basis of natural resins, mastic and coatings shpatlevochnyh of silicate materials okleechnoy protective coatings on the basis of bitumen roll materials, poliizobutilenovyh plates, duplicate polyethylene gummirovochnyh coatings facing and lining coatings arranged on kislotoupor-GOVERNMENTAL silicate plaster, on the mastic bituminol; for acid-concrete and concrete-silikatopolimer; surface impregnation, 15 C – to paint the reinforced and unreinforced coatings and liquid covering a bearing of the materials prepared by synthetic resins, mastic coatings and sealants Nairit prepared on the basis of synthetic rubbers; coating of sheet polymeric materials lining and lining coatings, carried out on plaster arzamit, furaktor, polyester, epoxy resins for polymer concrete, cement and polystyrene, cement and cement-perchlorovinyl casein plasters.
25 C – for latex coatings (such as "sex"). Work to protect building structures against corrosion should be done after all prior to construction works, the production process where the protective coating can be damaged. When the negative air temperature corrosion work should be carried out in heated rooms or shelters, if the project documentation is not provided the possibility of the device of the coating at low air temperatures. At negative temperatures may only restoration of damaged anticorrosion coatings (except for the use of sacrificial metal plasters). Relative humidity in the production of anti-corrosion work should be not higher than 70%. The metal surface prepared for the production of anti-corrosion work, should not have burrs, sharp edges, weld spatter, rolls, burn-through, flux residues, slag, oxides formed during welding, defects produced during the rolling and casting in the form of non-metallic makrovklyucheny, sinks, cracks, delamination, uneven, and the fat-pounds of pollution, rust and old paint. The most thoroughly be cleaned surface in the zone of welds up to 3 cm of flux residues, slag and alkali oxides formed during welding
Alpine slide – a hill with the inclusion of stones and colorful groundcover. Arrange on a sunny hill and sheltered place so that the building or the crown of mature trees are not shaded light-loving plants. It should have few side view, and thus each should look decent. Size is determined, above all, the size of the garden. On a small plot of land is appropriate compact slide, and the large allotments would be nice look more monumental building of large boulders. Sometimes it helps to form the shape of the "main" stone that gives the hill a conceptual center. The device slides Creating slides begins with the layout of the site.
On the supposed site dig the pit of irregular shape (not less than 30-40 cm) and fill it with gravel, broken brick, or expanded clay, which plays the role of drainage. For these purposes it may very well use construction waste. After the device basics slides sealed bottom of the pit, and he filled the fertile soil. Earth poured in layers, each layer is compacted and watered in order to identify voids. drainage done to ensure that land is not "utyanula" them into itself. On the surrounding area must remove all weeds such as quack grass dlinnokornevischnye and weed. Then, on the perimeter cabinets stacked boulders.
After laying the first lower the widest circle of stones formed tiers filled with gravel and compacted surface again. The basic rules for creating slides Since Hill – engineering construction and should be beautiful even without plants, with laying stones should be followed with some technical rules. At the bottom of hills should lay out the largest-sized stones. Stones are placed in the direction of the foot to the top so that the bottom were support lying above the widest part of the base is placed. Boulders are placed so that the subsequent row overlaps the previous joints (the letter 'T'). It is a pledge of strength. The closer to the vertex, the size of the stones in proportion decreases. Only in this case, the slide will look more natural. Boulders are placed irregularly shaped individually or in groups. The traditional way – laying tiers. Their number depends on the size of slides and used stones. Typically, the size of 5×3 m slides obtained 3.5 tiers. The distance between the stones should be sufficient for normal plant growth and to the grown plants are not concealed stones. Between the stones are held digging pockets that are filled with plants. After the plants facilities slides leave it for another week for the uniform subsidence and germination of the majority of weeds. Propolov hill and filling in the deeper soil, you can begin planting. After planting the seedlings fill up the soil surface gravel to mulch the weeds. Plants should be chosen unpretentious, focusing on the climatic conditions of the terrain. Perhaps needless to say, the plants should be undersized. In any case not thicken landing. Thumbnail image of plants is misleading. They grow fast. Knowing selection of plants for beginners tseetovodam can recommend the following plants: stonecrops, young, primrose, thrift, atsena, dwarf watersheds, alpine aster, Carpathian bluebell, grains, gentian, sunflowers, flax, saxifrage, thyme. Alpine garden will not only give your garden a special flavor, but also give you unforgettable pleasure from the process of creation of this little corner of nature. Care Melkokapelny watering 2-3 times a week. Each year in places where it should be implemented podsypku fertile land. Gorka necessarily weed. Shelter for the winter to prevent freezing spruce branches and plant protection burns from the spring sun. Source
Given the great diversity of plants, a wide price range of diesel-and gasoline generator on the market, their different purpose – to decide to buy power from its appointment – backup or main, location (room or street), the need for fixed or mobile stations (diesel generator, gasoline generator), the availability of power at startup failure of centralized power. 1. The choice of power plants (diesel generator, gasoline generator). To determine how nominal and maximum power must have your power plant (diesel generator, gasoline generator), it is necessary to determine the total capacity of electric power consumers, which will or may be operated simultaneously. First of all, it is necessary to define devices that you want to connect: active (electric cookers, lighting, heaters, etc.), inductive (drills, saws, pumps, compressors, refrigerators, electric motors, laser printers, etc.) If you have chosen power (Diesel generator, gasoline generator) with a synchronous generator, its power is calculated from the following relations: for the active power is necessary to sum all of simultaneously connected devices, add approximately 15-20 – percent power reserve, and you have the necessary power plant (diesel generator, gasoline generator). Elect an inductive type needs at the time of starting for more power, so the total power need to increase by 2.5-3 times to ensure efficiency power plants (diesel generator, gasoline generator). Practical experience of using plants suggests that the work of two – three light bulbs refrigerator, TV on your summer cottage is enough power to 2 kilowatts. The owner of a country cottage, which is constantly worried about shortages of electricity, you must purchase power (diesel generator, gasoline generator) with a capacity of 10 to 20 kilowatts.
Today's crop, attracts all the best in themselves the achievements of human learning. Ekofiziologiya and biochemistry, engineering, electronics, genetic engineering and biotechnology – that is not full list branches of knowledge, in the absence of which is now impossible to grow plants. The attention given to industrial crop is enormous. In general, it is quite well known – it's fact makes it work, and still feeds invests a significant area of population of the globe. What to say, for the background shining colossus 'huge' plant, which operates seamlessly with thousands of hectares of field and many millions of Tsenteroi products amateur and the more indoor plants seem insignificant Lilliputians. Naturally, at first glance very different scale comparison of these concepts will be sufficient to ridiculous and absurd. We will not, however, excited with final conclusions. Just think, if there is a lot of rooms, the windows are not even worth any pots with plants? And how many rooms in our city, in Europe and the world at last? Statistics as we know, knows everything, and, without hesitation, perhaps it would be even count the number of "home flowers" exactly, but that's just whether it is necessary? It's so clear that the number of astronomical formed.
Accordingly, room rastenivodstvom involved dozens, perhaps hundreds of millions of citizens! This is done comparable to the number of people employed in the industrial plant. But it's not just numbers. The bottom line is that all growers-fans grow plants solely at the behest of the soul. Where does this desire in us even though at times to touch something real, not made of metal or plastic and stuffed with chips? Memory Whether it's ancestors, the rest of our genes with those distant days when face-collector is not able to live a day and in the absence of its natural surrounding complex of plants? Maybe we are simply tired of asphalt roads, vehicles and other attributes of urban culture? One way or another, but a modest indoor plant is the source of happiness for different individuals. Is this enough to recognize its importance and expediency? If accidentally disappear plants, our existence will become poorer, there will arise a void that nothing will fill … There is a flower room and more educational role, and it is quite important at a time when we often talk about the need for environmental thinking population. Almost all the kids in a moment, begin to get acquainted with nature and to dream of a thoroughly personal dog, about akviriume or colors. With some effort it will soon recede, but sometimes it determines the selection of future amusement. No, obviously, not all kids are agobiologami or naturalists, but the child's impressions are preserved in their all vital activities.
Ergonomics kuhnivprintsipe were resolved in 30 of the last century, but only in recent years they have been resolved quite well technically. Modern kitchens are very different from the kitchen of the last century. In just the past decade have changed fundamentally the kitchen. The cost of modern cuisine is largely dependent on the quality of furniture components: tops, fronts, fittings, arrangements for the nomination and other details. The more expensive components, the more expensive dishes. Polish domestic or countertops for kitchens are 30-40% lower than the tops are German, but the quality of their wishes to be desired. Artificial stone countertops are even more value, but their use is justified. In recent years, artificial stone countertops are becoming increasingly popular in the design of our apartments.
Manufacture of artificial stone countertops for kitchens, Bar and counter tops, window sills, sinks and kitchen furniture to higher quality components vannoy.Chem for the kitchen, so they are much longer. Kitchen with expensive facades do not fade, expensive countertops in a couple of years swell, the boxes can easily be nominated, and the hinges do not squeak. Do not skimp on quality accessories for the kitchen. Custom Kitchens today are mass produced, and with the advent of modern technology made possible manufacturing elements of classical cuisine, which formerly dealt only experienced craftsmen. This curly curtain for kitchen, pilasters, valances, complex paneled facades. When there was all the MDF is made possible. MDF a molded fine fraction of the tree.
This slab material made from dried wood fibers treated with special binders, followed by hot pressing to density 700 … 870 kg / cubic meter. This material is for solid wood kitchen has surpassed almost all characteristics. This is confirmed by statistics – now in Europe for the facades of wood kitchen occupy no more than 10% of the market.
Soft roll krovlyaustraivaetsya depending on the slope of ramps in several layers, with a slope of more than 15% – in 2 layers, with a slope of 5-15% – to 3 layers, with 0-5% slope – in 4 layers. Preparatory processes for the device of roll roofing materials is the preparation and cooking primers, mastics and reel material to the label. Beginning with a vapor barrier under the training grounds, including the device under crater supports internal drainage. Then the roof served paste. If a vapor barrier is used vellum, paste it on mastic. To label roll material to the substrate using hot and cold mastic. Cold bitumen mastic before installation on the base melted to a temperature of 150-160 C. For the preparation of hot mastic asphalt is melted to a temperature of 220 C, then injected powdered mineral fillers such as talc, diatomite, tripoli.
Before laying on the ground should be prepared roofing material. For this it must be smoothed out with simultaneous cleaning the surface of powders and conditioned for 24 hours. Materials that do not have the coating layer, winds on the other side. If the roofing material to be laid in cold mastic, clear it from spreading is not necessary, since it is absorbed by the cement and becomes her carrier. Sticker roll of cloth adhesive cloth roll materialov.Dlya Related material used mastic. The layers of roll roofing materials, prepared on the basis of bitumen, bitumen mastic paste and only – Degteva compositions.
When the label panels should be considered value of roof pitch, the direction of water flow, the direction of prevailing winds and air temperature. Paintings on the roofs with slopes up to 15% paste in the direction of lower to higher places with the location of their perpendicular Runoff water. On roofs with a slope of more than 15% of fabric bonded to high places to low water flow in the direction to roll the carpet does not slip.
Fireplace – a symbol of comfort and well-being. Those who have suburban housing, certainly there is a fireplace. After all, a country house without a fireplace and can not call home. And what about those who live in a city apartment, but also wants to warmth, comfort and comfort in its not suburban, but the lady? Time of use electric or artificial fireplace is gone, electric fireplace – this is also what to watch TV in the picture of the flame and not feel the heat chamber, odor wood. Modern technology in the production of wood-burning fireplaces have achieved high ratings, and new benefits. New modern fireplaces world manufacturers producing fireplace with the secondary system afterburning of unburned gases, which in turn provide a dual combustion chamber.
Such a system can convert up to 90% of small particles in the smoke, the thermal energy through the combustion chamber, and that prevents their release into the atmosphere. Many models have a system of self-cleaning glass, which simplifies maintenance and care of the fireplace. Modern fireplaces are easy to use and quickly and without too much effort to install in your home. And by design, fireplaces can now be used in the commission of any interior, from classic to ultra-new. You can arrange a fireplace in the medieval centuries and built into the wall. And you can set the fireplace in a modern style in the middle of the room, which will occupy no more than half the area of the apartment and will appear as an element of the interior. These fireplaces can choose any color panels and choose the right equipment: with legs of different height, with stand different style or a rotating pedestal-stand.
The main area of strip foundation are buildings with heavy walls (brick, concrete, stone), and heavy floor slabs. Strip foundation is located on the perimeter exterior walls, and placed under the supporting inner walls of buildings or other areas with increased load. Also strip foundation is well-suited for homes, which is planned to create basement, garage or basement. Strip foundation is also suitable in the case of a possible slight deformation of the base. Typically, strip footing located below the level of soil freezing at 20 cm of sandy soil You can lay the strip foundation and higher levels of freezing, but not more than 60 cm from ground level.
For deep-freezing and highly swelling soils usually strip foundation shall not apply. Process itself strip foundation construction is simple, on the other hand it requires a fairly high cost of materials and work on the construction of the foundation. There are criteria for the minimum thickness of the foundation, which can be used building a house. Thus, the minimum thickness of reinforced concrete strip foundation – 10 cm of concrete – 25 cm, rubble concrete foundation – 35 cm, well and laying of natural stone – 50 cm in the construction of strip foundation to be also take into account the permissible load on the soil under the foundation. For clay soils at a depth of 80 cm load should not exceed 2 kg/cm2. In addition to pouring the foundation concrete mixtures, often strip foundations erected using ready-made foundation blocks or bricks.
This speeds up the process of building a foundation. It should also be noted that during the construction of strip foundation is an opportunity to save money raising the foundation to the full depth only during the construction of heavy structures. There is still the most reliable option strip foundation remains solid foundation, more time-consuming and requires prior creating formwork and reinforcement training design to increase strength strip foundation. And in this case, the valves must be connected to each other by welding.