Sao Tome and Principe – located in the Gulf of Guinea state, near the west coast of Africa. Consists of the islands of Sao Tome, Principe and several small islands of volcanic origin, located almost on the equator. State capital: Sao Tome. Until 1470 the islands were uninhabited. The first inhabitants were expelled from Portugal, criminals, and Jews. Soon, the Portuguese planted sugar cane plantations here and brought with mainland slaves to work on them. During a period of islands were under the Dutch and French rule, but after a while (1822) them again and captured the Portuguese started to cultivate cocoa. By 1900, State became a leader for its production.
Cocoa and now remains a key crop. Even after the abolition of slavery in the xix century. The Portuguese are very ill-treated black population. In 1953, during the demonstration have killed hundreds workers. In 1975 the island gained independence, but retained strong links with Portugal. In the relief of the islands are distinguished volcanic cones, which rises to 821 meters (Fr.
Principe) and 2024 m (O. Sao Tome). The set of frozen lava flows, craters, mountains are covered with finger-like cliffs, buttes. Coast of the island is very rugged, rocky and steep almost their entire length, but it is very beautiful and picturesque. The climate here is equatorial, humid and warm. On the coast, the average January temperature about 26 C, July – 23 C, annual rainfall 1000-11-00 mm in the mountains – 3000 mm. Almost year-round rains, relatively dry period on. Sao Tome is not long – with December to March. Islands are covered with lush humid equatorial forests, but the fauna is not rich: caught monkeys (Dril, macaque, gveretsy), various birds, snakes, lizards, chameleons. Diverse marine fauna, introduced fishes, shrimps, lobsters, crabs, oysters and other shellfish. Current population – santomeytsy – arose from settlers from the mainland. Their culture, which has American roots, has a Portuguese influence. In the capital, Sao Tome preserved Portuguese fort and a few old buildings, some residents are working on their farms. Most of the population engaged in fishing. The country is underdeveloped economically. Leading sector is agriculture. Industry, primarily manufacturing, is in its infancy.