Old houses can be divided into several types: pre-revolutionary building, the post-revolutionary buildings, "Stalinka"; brick, panels, building is an architectural and historical value. Pre-revolutionary buildings – usually wooden houses with wooden floors and walls under the plaster. One of their features – the difference between (and sometimes – considerable) size of window blocks the size of the openings. At installation of windows during the construction of the gap was mounted frame of thick timber, which is already installed window assembly. Above the bar organized an impressive thickness of the plaster soffits. Over the years, old wood under the cracked plaster gradually izgnivaet, and sometimes turns into dust. When removing the windows have to break the plaster soffits and wooden box apart.
The result is a gap in where nothing to strengthen the window unit. In this case, the installation of window units provide pre-installation of the wooden box that is attached to the walls on the long fasteners. The walls of the houses built after Revolution, usually made of bricks and then plastered. She also formed slopes, and under a thick layer of mortar is often hidden all the same doborny board. As a result of the dismantling of old windows in a house aperture is obtained, where the perimeters of the outer part of the opening is much smaller than the inside, and the window sizes obtained from the measurements of the outer quarters, will clearly be an underestimate. Dismantle sill also presents the "surprises": sometimes under the wooden window sill board is ten inches of tow or other filler. Often this was due to the fact that during the restoration of old houses raised floor, and hence the window. The height of the window units had decreased, and window sills to raise all available at the time of ways. Read additional details here: Pete Cashmore. Naturally, when removing the tow must be removed and an opening to lay the masonry, which can be mounted in window frames.
On the basis of design documentation for the device should be corrosion resistant coatings to develop the project of works (CPD) in accordance with the requirements of SNIP 01/03/01, of which should include flow sheets device to separate anti-corrosion coatings. In the process maps on the device coatings should provide the following basic requirements: – the preparation of materials – "the preparation of the surface structure under the protective covering – "Application of primer or primer-impregnation -" a protective coating in one or more layers – "keeping the coating on the air until it hardened, drying or heat treatment; – "Okislovke surface. Materials used for corrosion resistant coatings device must comply with the requirements of existing TNLA. Their quality must be confirmed by quality certificate of the manufacturer and in accordance with applicable law, – the certificate of conformity of the National System of conformity or technical evidence. Transportation, warehousing and storage of materials, as well as structures and equipment coated with a protective coating on the construction site should be in accordance with the requirements of TNLA for this product (product). Quality Control Devices anticorrosive coverings should be in accordance with the requirements of existing TNLA. The ambient air temperature, shielding materials and surfaces to be protected must not be below 10 C – for paint coatings, prepared on the basis of natural resins, mastic and coatings shpatlevochnyh of silicate materials okleechnoy protective coatings on the basis of bitumen roll materials, poliizobutilenovyh plates, duplicate polyethylene gummirovochnyh coatings facing and lining coatings arranged on kislotoupor-GOVERNMENTAL silicate plaster, on the mastic bituminol; for acid-concrete and concrete-silikatopolimer; surface impregnation, 15 C – to paint the reinforced and unreinforced coatings and liquid covering a bearing of the materials prepared by synthetic resins, mastic coatings and sealants Nairit prepared on the basis of synthetic rubbers; coating of sheet polymeric materials lining and lining coatings, carried out on plaster arzamit, furaktor, polyester, epoxy resins for polymer concrete, cement and polystyrene, cement and cement-perchlorovinyl casein plasters.
25 C – for latex coatings (such as "sex"). Work to protect building structures against corrosion should be done after all prior to construction works, the production process where the protective coating can be damaged. When the negative air temperature corrosion work should be carried out in heated rooms or shelters, if the project documentation is not provided the possibility of the device of the coating at low air temperatures. At negative temperatures may only restoration of damaged anticorrosion coatings (except for the use of sacrificial metal plasters). Relative humidity in the production of anti-corrosion work should be not higher than 70%. The metal surface prepared for the production of anti-corrosion work, should not have burrs, sharp edges, weld spatter, rolls, burn-through, flux residues, slag, oxides formed during welding, defects produced during the rolling and casting in the form of non-metallic makrovklyucheny, sinks, cracks, delamination, uneven, and the fat-pounds of pollution, rust and old paint. The most thoroughly be cleaned surface in the zone of welds up to 3 cm of flux residues, slag and alkali oxides formed during welding
Soft roll krovlyaustraivaetsya depending on the slope of ramps in several layers, with a slope of more than 15% – in 2 layers, with a slope of 5-15% – to 3 layers, with 0-5% slope – in 4 layers. Preparatory processes for the device of roll roofing materials is the preparation and cooking primers, mastics and reel material to the label. Beginning with a vapor barrier under the training grounds, including the device under crater supports internal drainage. Then the roof served paste. If a vapor barrier is used vellum, paste it on mastic. To label roll material to the substrate using hot and cold mastic. Cold bitumen mastic before installation on the base melted to a temperature of 150-160 C. For the preparation of hot mastic asphalt is melted to a temperature of 220 C, then injected powdered mineral fillers such as talc, diatomite, tripoli.
Before laying on the ground should be prepared roofing material. For this it must be smoothed out with simultaneous cleaning the surface of powders and conditioned for 24 hours. Materials that do not have the coating layer, winds on the other side. If the roofing material to be laid in cold mastic, clear it from spreading is not necessary, since it is absorbed by the cement and becomes her carrier. Sticker roll of cloth adhesive cloth roll materialov.Dlya Related material used mastic. The layers of roll roofing materials, prepared on the basis of bitumen, bitumen mastic paste and only – Degteva compositions.
When the label panels should be considered value of roof pitch, the direction of water flow, the direction of prevailing winds and air temperature. Paintings on the roofs with slopes up to 15% paste in the direction of lower to higher places with the location of their perpendicular Runoff water. On roofs with a slope of more than 15% of fabric bonded to high places to low water flow in the direction to roll the carpet does not slip.
The main area of strip foundation are buildings with heavy walls (brick, concrete, stone), and heavy floor slabs. Strip foundation is located on the perimeter exterior walls, and placed under the supporting inner walls of buildings or other areas with increased load. Also strip foundation is well-suited for homes, which is planned to create basement, garage or basement. Strip foundation is also suitable in the case of a possible slight deformation of the base. Typically, strip footing located below the level of soil freezing at 20 cm of sandy soil You can lay the strip foundation and higher levels of freezing, but not more than 60 cm from ground level.
For deep-freezing and highly swelling soils usually strip foundation shall not apply. Process itself strip foundation construction is simple, on the other hand it requires a fairly high cost of materials and work on the construction of the foundation. There are criteria for the minimum thickness of the foundation, which can be used building a house. Thus, the minimum thickness of reinforced concrete strip foundation – 10 cm of concrete – 25 cm, rubble concrete foundation – 35 cm, well and laying of natural stone – 50 cm in the construction of strip foundation to be also take into account the permissible load on the soil under the foundation. For clay soils at a depth of 80 cm load should not exceed 2 kg/cm2. In addition to pouring the foundation concrete mixtures, often strip foundations erected using ready-made foundation blocks or bricks.
This speeds up the process of building a foundation. It should also be noted that during the construction of strip foundation is an opportunity to save money raising the foundation to the full depth only during the construction of heavy structures. There is still the most reliable option strip foundation remains solid foundation, more time-consuming and requires prior creating formwork and reinforcement training design to increase strength strip foundation. And in this case, the valves must be connected to each other by welding.